• Independent since 25 December 1991

  • OSCE membership since 30 January 1992

  • CoE membership: no

  • Constitution: adopted March 15, 1994, last amendments October 17, 2004

  • Form of government: presidential republic

  • Population: 9,475,100( est. 2014)

  • Registered Voters: 7,030,430 (September 2012)

  • Head of state: President, elected by absolute majority vote, two-round system, 5-year term, no term limit

Since July 1994 Alyaksandr Lukashenko

  • Head of government: Prime Minister, appointed by the President.

Since 27 December 2014 Andrei Kobyakov.


  • Assembly: bicameral parliament (Natsionalnoye Sobranie):


Council of the Republic (Soviet Respubliki): 64 deputies, four-year term, 56 members elected by regional governing councils, 8 members appointed by the president


Chamber of Representatives (Palata Predstaviteley): 110 deputies, 4-year terms, majoritarian system, single member constituencies, two-rounds, 50 % turnout requirement in the first round, 25 % in the second round for elections to be valid.


Belarusian Helsinki Committee


The National Human Rights Public Association “Belarusian Helsinki Committee”* is an autonomous, independent, non-profit, human rights public association established for the implementation of humanitarian activities on the territory of the Republic of Belarus. It operates on the basis of self-governance and unites citizens of the Republic of Belarus on the basis of their common interests. It is independent from government and business bodies, political and non-governmental organizations. Relationships with them are based on partnership, dialogue and cooperation.




Belarus Helsinki Committee
220036 Minsk,
K. Liebknecht str., 68, office 1201;
Tel. +375 17 222 48 01
Fax: +37517 222 48 00;

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Human Rights Center Viasna


Human Rights Center "Viasna" is a non-governmental human rights organization, created in 1996 during mass protest actions of the democratic opposition in Belarus. Viasna was initially a group created to help the arrested rally participants and their families. That’s why originally Viasna had the name “Viasna-96”. On 15 June 1999 the organization was registered as the Human Rights Center "Viasna". It is a national NGO with the central office in Minsk and regional organizations in the majority of Belarusian cities. Viasna has about 200 members all over the country. The organization is managed by the Council and chair of the Council, elected by the General Congress.

On 28 October 2003 the Supreme Court of the Republic of Belarus groundlessly cancelled registration of Viasna for its participation in observation of the presidential election in 2001. On 6 March 2004 the Human Rights Center "Viasna" became member of the International Federation for Human Rights (FIDH).




Human Rights Center Viasna



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Presidential election: 2015
Parliamentary election: 2016

Electoral Code of the Republic of Belarus, last amended in November 2013


Download here: PDF (RU)  (english version not yet available)


old: Electoral Code of the Republic of Belarus, last amended in November 2011


Download here: PDF (EN)  |  PDF (RU)

(source: Central Election Commission of Belarus)



OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights

access here


International Foundation for Electoral Systems

access here


Venice Commission of the Council of Europe (documents)

access here


IDEA Voter Turnout Data

access here