• Independent since 25 December 1991 

  • OSCE membership since 25 June 1973

  • CoE membership since 28 February 1996

  • Constitution: adoptedDecember 12, 1993 (last amendments November 2008 extended the presidential term from four to six years and the State Duma’s term from four to five years)
    Form of government: Federal semi-presidential republic

  • Population: 143,300,000 (2012)

  • Registered Voters: 109,860,331 (2012)


  • Head of state: President, direct absolute majority vote, single countrywide constituency, two-round system, 6-year term

Since May 2012 Vladimir Putin

  • Head of government: Prime minister, appointed by the president, approved by the parliament

Since May 2012 Dmitry Medvedev


  • Assembly: bicameral

Federal Assembly (Federalnoye Sobraniye), Federation Council (Sovet Federatsii), 166 deputies, State Duma (Gosudarstvennaya Duma)

Election system:

Federation Council (upper house): 166 members, appointed by regional governing councils.

State Duma (lower house): 450 members, closed-list proportional representation system, single countrywide constituency, 5-year term; regional results have impact on final countrywide results


Threshold: 7%

Independent candidacies and electoral blocks not permitted

Camera system in the precincts


Association GOLOS


The Association of Non-Profit Organizations “In Defense of Voters’ Rights «GOLOS»“ is a Russian non-profit organization which was founded in 2000 for the protection of Russian voters’ rights and the development of civic society.

Currently, GOLOS is working in 48 regions in Russia, and advocates fair, direct, and transparent elections by conducting long-term and short-term election monitoring during elections, by informing citizens about electoral legislation, managing hotlines for reports of electoral corruption, and by publicly discussing important social issues.


Movement for Defence of Voters' Rights Golos




Following the Ministry of Justice' decision, the activity of the Association Golos has been supended until December 2013 . Currently, the work of the Association Golos is temporarily conducted by the Movement for Defence of Voters' Rights Golos.




Movement for Defence of Voters' Rights Golos



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Parliamentary election: 2016
Presidential election: 2018


Electoral legislation of the Russian Federation


Electoral code for the presidential election

amended in July 2011

download here: PDF (EN)  |  PDF (RU)


Electoral Code for the parliamentary election

amended in July 2011

download here: PDF (EN)  |  PDF (RU)

Federal law on basic guarantees of electoral rights and the right of citizens of the Russian Federation to participate in a referendum

amended in July 2011

download here: PDF (EN)  |  PDF (RU)


(source: Central Election Commission of the Russian Federation)




Regional and local elections

8 September 2013

1st interim report: Nomination and registration of candidates

PDF (English)   |   PDF (Russian)   |   PDF (German)


2nd interim report: Agitation

PDF (EN) | PDF (RU) | PDF (DE)


Press release on the Election Day proceedings: PDF (EN)



OSCE Office for Democratic Institutions and Human RIghts

access here


International Foundation for Electoral Systems

access here


Venice Commission of the Council of Europe (documents)

access here


IDEA Voter Turnout Data

access here